What about the baby?
Gestational diabetes, whether high or low, can cause the baby to overgrow (macrosomia), which often leads to a C-section because the baby is too heavy. Because the amniotic liquid is more abundant in diabetic women, they could also deliver prematurely. In addition, the child will be predisposed to being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.
If the fasting blood sugar of the mother is too high, the baby may also suffer from hypoglycemia immediately after birth, as they are more likely to suffer from jaundice or have breathing difficulties. The risk of prenatal mortality is also higher.
Gestational diabetes can also cause maternal hypertension (preeclampsia), which directly affects the baby’s growth. These risks are greatly reduced if the mother receives a treatment to lower her blood sugar levels.
Women who suffered from gestational diabetes are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. If the woman is overweight and does not exercise, the risks are even higher. Fortunately, the treatment during pregnancy reduces risks and increases the chances to succeed in another pregnancy.